How to make a lab report

Us we all know making a lab report is a challenge specially for those who haven't done it before. This post will help high school students, college students and any other who wants to make a good standing report; so in this post I will try to show you how you can make a perfect lab report.

The first thing you need to know is that on what subject and specific matter you would like to make your report. This will help you to choose a title the shouldn't be too long or short and it needs to express what the whole report is about.

After choosing your title the next thing that you need to put is objective of the report since it can create a good impression for those who will review your report and it can tell what the benefit of doing the report.

The third thing will be theory or principle here you will put previous facts plus things which support your report and which are not controversial I mean things which are proven to be true.


Then Materials used when doing your experiment or research.

Then Methods used to do your experiment put them step by step.

Now you can write what your results are from your experiment. Try to explain it in a good way by using different strategies like using questions and their answers.         
         BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Measurement of Arterial Blood Pressure (Auscultatory Method)

ObjectiveTo learn how to measure systolic and diastolic blood pressures by Auscultatory Method.
Principle:
A cuff which is attached to a manometer (sphygmomanometer) is wrapped around the upper arm and is inflated until the brachial artery is completely closed. The bell of a stethoscope is placed over the artery distal to the cuff. The cuff is then allowed to deflate slowly. A clapping or cracking sound is heard, through the stethoscope, over the artery when the pressure is the cuff barely falls below the systolic arterial pressure in the artery. The pressure recoiling in the manometer is noted. The pressure at which the sound becomes muffled and disappears is the diastolic pressure.
Materials and Methods:
A. Materials:

1. Standard cuff (13cm wide) attached to a mercury manometer (sphygmomanometer or attached to aneroid manometer).
2. Stethoscope with diaphragm.
B. Methods:

1. The subject is made to sit or lie in relaxed position.
2. The whole forearm is supported on the table or couch, at the heart level. The side of the arm and the position used are noted.
3. Wrap the cuff firmly round the upper arm placed in pronated position, about 2.5 cm above cubital fossa. The tubes coming from the cuff should near the cubital fossa but should not be over the brachial artery. The sphygmomanometer must be placed at level with the heart and observer‟s while recording reading. 

4. Place three fingers of right hand on the subject‟s radial artery at the wrist, and feel for the radial pulse.
5. Close the valve of the bulb and inflate cuff by compressing the bulb till radial pulse disappears.
6. Gradually deflate the cuff slowly till the radial pulse is just felt.
7. Note and record the reading in manometer. This gives the systolic blood pressure by palpatory method (radial).
8. Keep the cuff wrapped round upper arm and connected to manometer.
9. Feel for the tendon of biceps muscle in the cubital fossa and palpate for the brachial artery medial to it.
10. Place diaphragm of stethoscope snugly but not tightly over the brachial artery.
11. Inflate the cuff rapidly to about 30mmHg above where the radial pulse had disappeared by palpatory method (above). This ensures that pressure of brachial artery is completely obliterated, and therefore no sound is heard.
12. Gradually release the cuff pressure by means of the valve of the bulb in such a way that each opening of the valve causes a fall of 2-3mmHg in the manometer.
13. A tapping sound will heart at some point. Read and record the pressure reading in the manometer at the onset of the tapping sound. This indicates opening of the artery. This pressure level in manometer is approximately equal to systolic blood pressure.
14. Gradually release the pressure and note sudden changes in the quality of the tapping sound. Note the pressure at which the sound becomes muffled quality. Then disappears. Read and record this level of manometer. This point of complete cessation of muffled sound is the best index of diastolic blood pressure.

Note. For a case in which no stoppage of sounds occurs the point of muffling should be taken as diastolic pressure. The diastolic pressure recorded should then be indicated with a question mark as follows 150/60? 

Results:
Subject: Age- 19 Sex-M
Position
Arm Used
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)
Sitting
LEFT
110
70
Interpretation of Observation:
From the above result we can deduce that in a sitted person systolic pressure decreases because venous return decreases due to gravitational force.
Questions:
1. What is indicated if:
a. Systolic Blood Pressure is raised?
ü There is increment in the venous return
b. Diastolic Blood Pressure is very high?
ü When the stroke volume very high or when the compliance of the aorta is decreased.
2. In which condition:
c. Pulse pressure is remarkably increased?
ü When the stroke volume is high and/or when the compliance is low.
d. Pulse Pressure may be very low?
ü When the stroke volume is low and/or when the compliance is high.
3. Calculate mean arterial blood pressure based on the following:

Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) 160mmHg
Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) 90mmHg 

Answer: MAP=PD+1/3(PS-PD)

90+1/3(160-90)      MAP = 106.67 mmHg
3.1) what is the effect of high-pressure baroreceptors at normal arterial blood pressure, on vasomotor area?
ü The high pressure baroreceptors; the aortic and carotid sinuses act as buffers preventing any discernible fluctuations in MAP that otherwise could occur .For instance in an experiment done on a dog with denervated baroreceptors the MPA was observed to deviate by more than 50 mmHg than the normal in contrast to the only 10 mmHg or so deviation that could have occurred normally.

ü They also help prevent deprivation of the brain and the heart of the necessary amount vital for their functioning.

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About Daniel Eshetu

Daniel Eshetu is CEO of Habesha Entertainment, blogger and medical student at Black Lion Hospital Addis Ababa. Follow @danieleshetu99
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